Development and evaluation of automotive speech interfaces: useful information from the human factors and the related literature.
Drivers often use infotainment systems in motor vehicles, such as systems for navigation, music, and phones. However, operating visual-manual interfaces for these systems can distract drivers. Speech interfaces may be less distracting. To help designing easy-to-use speech interfaces, this paper identifies key speech interfaces (e.g., CHAT, Linguatronic, SYNC, Siri, and Google Voice), their features, and what was learned from evaluating them and other systems. Also included is information on key technical standards (e.g., ISO 9921, ITU P.800) and relevant design guidelines. This paper also describes relevant design and evaluation methods (e.g., Wizard of Oz) and how to make driving studies replicable (e.g., by referencing SAE J2944). Throughout the paper, there is discussion of linguistic terms (e.g., turn-taking) and principles (e.g., Grice-s Conversational Maxims) that provide a basis for describing user-device interactions and errors in evaluations.