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Driver report of improper seat belt position among 4- to 9-year-old children
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency with which drivers report improper seat belt positions among children 4-9 years of age and the frequency with which reported problems were attributable to the lap belt, shoulder belt, or both. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of driver responses to 5 questions...
Crash protection for child passengers rationale for best practice / by Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam A. Manary, and Kathleen B. Weber.
Child restraint systems provide specialized protection for pediatric motor vehicle occupants whose body structures are still immature and growing. There are many occupant protection systems available and the different types of restraints are appropriately matched to children based primarily on...
Vehicle LATCH system features associated with correct child restraint installations
Objective: Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) was intended to standardize the attachment between child restraints and vehicle seats. However, LATCH implementations vary, resulting in different ease-of-attachment of child restraint connectors. Identifying vehicle characteristics...
Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats
A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5–12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage...
Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats
Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the...
Child passenger restraints in relation to other second-row passengers an analysis of the 2007-2009 National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats.
Objective: Child restraint systems (CRS) are increasingly being designed to accommodate larger children and to mitigate side impact injuries. Little is known about the impact of CRS on the safety of other vehicle passengers due to limitations of existing crash databases. This study provides the...
A simulation study of spine biofidelity in the Hybrid-III 6-year-old ATD
Objective: Because of the lack of pediatric biomechanical data, Hybrid-III (HIII) child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are essentially scaled from the mid-size male ATD based on the geometric considerations. These ATDs inherit a rigid thoracic spine from the adult HIII ATDs, which has been...
Development and validation of a parametric child anthropomorphic test device model representing 6-12-year-old children.
Children from 6 to 12 year-old (YO) restrained in motor vehicles by seatbelts designed for adults often experience poor belt fit that results in adverse outcomes in crashes. Computer modelling provides a means to investigate the effects of body size on the injury risks in crashes beyond the few...

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