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Integrating physical and cognitive human models to represent driving behavior
This research addresses the divide between cognitive and physical human models by integrating a cognitive human model with a physical human model. This new combined model uses the advantages of each type of model to overcome the weaknesses of the other. The capabilities of the new integrated model...
The effect of bracing availability on force-exertion capability in one-hand isometric pulling tasks
In activities of daily living and industrial tasks people encounter obstructions in their environment that kinematically limit the postures that they can achieve. These obstructions can also provide an opportunity for additional support such as bracing with the hand, thigh or other body part. The...
Hand positions and forces during truck ingress
Many truck drivers are injured each year due to falls while getting into and out of their vehicles. Design guidelines for steps and handholds are not based on biomechanical data and do not reflect a systems approach to design. As part of a broader effort to improve ingress/egress safety, a...
Modeling foot trajectories for heavy truck ingress simulation
Digital human figure models are a useful tool for simulation of driver ingress and egress for passenger cars, light trucks, and heavy commercial trucks. Simulation allows evaluation of the suitability of steps and handholds as a system. Accurate simulation requires detailed, validated algorithms to...
Measurement of the contour and deflection of vehicle seats for comparison with the FMVSS 213 dynamic test bench
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 specifies a bench seat that is used in dynamic testing of child restraint systems. To assess the representativeness of the FMVSS 213 bench, data from 54 passenger cars, minivans, and SUVs were analyzed to quantify the side-view profile of the seat...
The influence of heavy truck egress tactics on ground reaction force
Slips and falls during cab egress are an important cause of injuries to truck drivers. Previous work has shown that the egress tactics may influence risk. Inward-facing tactics (driver faces the truck) are universally recommended, but biomechanical evidence supporting this recommendation is sparse...
An eyellipse for rear seats with fixed seat back angles
This paper describes the development of the fixed seat eyellipse in the October 2008 revision of SAE Recommended Practice J941. The eye locations of 23 men and women with a wide range of stature were recorded as they sat in each of three second-row bench seats in a laboratory mockup. Testing was...
Understanding work task assessment sensitivity to the prediction of standing location
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of...
Influence of object weight and terminal orientation on upper limb postures during grasping, holding, and placing cylindrical object
This study examines the effect of object weight and terminal orientation on upper limb postures during grasping, holding, and placing cylindrical objects. An experiment including two sessions was conducted. In the first session, eight subjects grasped and held a horizontally located cylindrical...

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