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Developing complex crash warning simulations for Human Factors evaluations
In traditional vehicle warning experiments, each subject sees each warning once, and warning comparisons are between subjects, a very inefficient approach. Driving simulator experiments for the recent RDCW and IVBSS projects used within-subjects designs, with each subject responding to a warning...
Driver interface/HMI standards to minimize driver distraction/overload
This paper describes (1) the telematics distraction/overload problem, (2) what distraction and overload are and how they differ, (3) the standards and guidelines that apply to the design and evaluation of driver interfaces/human-machine interfaces (HMI) for telematics (and their strengths and...
New definition of legibility index to examine off-axis viewing of text and graphics
Reading text and graphics is a common issue in lighting design and practice. Legibility of text and graphics is often measured using the Legibility Index, conventionally defined as the distance at which material can be read with perfect accuracy (the legibility distance) divided by the character...
Almost 50 years of the University of Michigan Human Factors Engineering Summer Conference
In 1957 Paul Fitts and Daniel Howland offered a human factors summer course at Ohio State University. Fitts moved to Michigan in 1958, and the next year he offered essentially the same course in Ann Arbor. The course has been given every summer since then. An estimated 3500 students from a diverse...
Methods for assessing the safety and usability of in-vehicle systems lessons from UMTRI driver interface research
When buying a vehicle, customers consider many vehicle attributes, including safety, ease of use, and comfort. Design and evaluation of vehicles for these attributes requires human factors expertise and unique tools. However, most mechanical or electrical engineers may not have this expertise as...
How driving simulator data quality can be improved
This paper examines problems commonly found in fixed-based driving simulators that lead to imperfect replication of real driver behavior and performance, and solutions for those problems. Those problems include (1 and 2) the standard deviation of lane position is either too small or too large, (3)...
Character heights for vehicle displays as predicted by 22 equations
To drive safely, it is important for drivers to quickly be able to read their speedometer, warning displays, navigation screen, and other displays on the instrument panel. Most of the information presented on displays is text, and its legibility largely depends upon character height. This paper...
Driver status and implications for crash safety
Almost a million people are killed worldwide each year in motor vehicle crashes, over 42,000 of them in the U.S. Human/driver error (or induced error) is the most commonly identified contributing cause according to crash studies, especially studies conducted in the U.S. Accordingly, if crashes are...

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