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Modeling body shape from surface landmark configurations
Detailed statistical models of body size and shape are valuable for wide range of statistical analyses. Most body shape models represent a single posture, usually standing. Previous efforts to model both posture and body shape have parameterized posture using joint angles. This paper presents a sta...
Robust truck cabin layout optimization using advanced driver variance models
One important source of variance in the performance and success of products designed for use by people is the people themselves. In many cases, the acceptability of the design is af- fected more by the variance in the human users than by the vari- ance attributable to the hardware from which the...
Maintaining balance in seated reaches
The aim of this study is to gain insight into how people maintain their balance while performing seated reaches. The requirement to maintain balance is a significant contributor to reach difficulty, and in some cases exceeds strength and range of motion as the primary limiting factor in achieving a...
Standing reach envelopes incorporating anthropometric variance and postural cost
Standing reach envelopes are important tools for the design of industrial and vehicle environments. Previous work in this area has focussed on manikin-based (where a few manikins are used to simulate individuals reaching within the region of interest) and population-based (where data are gathered...
Rapid generation of custom avatars using depth cameras
Recent developments in depth - camera technology have enabled these low - cost tools to be used as body scanners. We present a simple software and hardware system using two Microsoft Kinect sensors that can generate an 3D avatar closely matching the body dimensions of an individual in about 15...
A method for determining the vehicle-to-ground contact load during laboratory-based rollover tests
Many rollover safety researches have been conducted experimentally and analytically to investigate the underlying causes of vehicle accidents and develop rollover test procedures and test methodologies to help understand the nature of rollover crash events. In addition, electronic and/or mechanical...
Anthropometric and postural variability: limitations of the boundary manikin appraoch
Human figure models are commonly used to facilitate ergonomic assessments of vehicle driver stations and other workplaces. One routine method of workstation assessment is to conduct a suite of ergonomic analyses using a family of boundary manikins, chosen to represent a range of anthropometric...
Improved head restraint design for safety and compliance
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently revised Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202, which governs head restraints. The new standard, known as FMVSS 202a, establishes for the first time in the U.S. a requirement for the fore-aft position of the head...
Best practice in peer-led curriculum content :  informing an interactive program to improve passenger safety among high school seniors
 Despite ongoing improvements in behaviour change strategies, licensing models and road law enforcement measures young drivers remain significantly over-represented in fatal and non-fatal road related crashes. This paper focuses on the safety of those approaching driving age and identifies both...
Effects of crash pulse, impact angle, occupant size, front seat location, and restraint system on rear seat occupant protection
In this study, two sled series were conducted with a sled buck representing a compact vehicle. The first series of tests focused on the effects of crash pulse, impact angle, occupant size, and front seat location on rear seat occupant restraint with a generic rear-seat belt system without pre-...

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