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Toward understanding the recent large reductions in U.S. road fatalities
From 2005 to 2009, U.S. road fatalities dropped by 22% (from 43,510 to 33,963). A reduction of such magnitude over such a short time has not occurred since road-safety statistics were first kept (starting in 1913), except for the reductions during World War II. The present study was performed to...
Headlamps and pedestrian injuries
This study examined existing U.S. data on the contribution of headlamp hardware to pedestrian injuries in crashes. Three sets of pedestrian crash data were used. The first set included all police-reported pedestrian crashes from five states. The analyzed variable was the initial point of impact on...
Drivers on unfamiliar roads and traffic crashes
This study was designed to investigate whether there is an increased risk of traffic crashes in the U.S. for out-of-state drivers-those drivers whose driver license was not issued by the state in which they were involved in a crash. Two analyses were performed. In the first analysis, we examined...
Survival in fatal road crashes body mass index, gender, and safety belt use.
Background: This study evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI), gender, and use of safety belts with the survival of drivers involved in fatal road crashes. Method: The census data of all U.S. fatal crashes that did not involve pedestrians, bicyclists, or motorcyclists were examined for...
Vehicle kinematics in turns and the role of cornering lamps in driver vision
SAE Recommended Practice J852 and ECE Regulations 119 and 48 for cornering lamps were compared. Photometric points described in each specification were then compared to naturalistic lowspeed turn trajectories produced by 87 drivers. Future locations of a vehicle engaged in a turn were calculated...
The development of a model to predict the effects of worker and task factors on foot placements in manual material handling tasks
Accurate prediction of foot placements in relation to hand locations during manual materials handling tasks is critical for prospective biomechanical analysis. To address this need, the effects of lifting task conditions and anthropometric variables on foot placements were studied in a laboratory...
Computational investigation of the effects of driver and vehicle interior factors on the risk of knee-thigh-hip injureis in frontal crashes
The effects of seatbelt use, muscle tension, lower-extremity posture, driver fore-aft seat position, seat height, and seat angle on the likelihood of knee, thigh, and hip (KTH) injuries during knee-to-knee-bolster impacts in frontal crashes were studied using a finite element (FE) human model. A...
Appropriate analysis of CIREN data using NASS-CDS to reduce bias in estimation of injury risk factors in passenger vehicle crashes.
The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database contains detailed medical and crash information on a large number of severely injured occupants in motor vehicle crashes. CIREN's major limitation for stand-alone analyses to explore injury risk factors is that control subjects...

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