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Measurement of the contour and deflection of vehicle seats for comparison with the FMVSS 213 dynamic test bench
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 specifies a bench seat that is used in dynamic testing of child restraint systems. To assess the representativeness of the FMVSS 213 bench, data from 54 passenger cars, minivans, and SUVs were analyzed to quantify the side-view profile of the seat...
Assessing the effects of the design population on seat dimensions
Dimensional recommendations for automotive seat design are often based on populations different from the intended user population. Military data are commonly used to provide guidance for seats used by civilians, for example, because detailed military data are more readily obtained. Even when data...
Development of a methodology for simulating seat back interaction using realistic body contours
Seat comfort is driven in part by the fit between the sitter and seat. Traditional anthropometric data provide little information about the size and shape of the torso that can be used for backrest design. This study introduces a methodology for using three-dimensional computer models of the human...
The influence of heavy truck egress tactics on ground reaction force
Slips and falls during cab egress are an important cause of injuries to truck drivers. Previous work has shown that the egress tactics may influence risk. Inward-facing tactics (driver faces the truck) are universally recommended, but biomechanical evidence supporting this recommendation is sparse...
An eyellipse for rear seats with fixed seat back angles
This paper describes the development of the fixed seat eyellipse in the October 2008 revision of SAE Recommended Practice J941. The eye locations of 23 men and women with a wide range of stature were recorded as they sat in each of three second-row bench seats in a laboratory mockup. Testing was...
Effects of obesity on seat belt fit
Introduction: Obesity has been shown to increase the risks of some types of injury in crashes. One way in which obesity may increase injury risk is by changing the routing of the belt relative to the underlying skeletal structures. Methods: Belt fit was measured in a laboratory study of 54 men and...
Improving the repeatability and reproducibility of belt fit measurement with 6YO and 10YO ATDs
In previous work, researchers at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) developed a method for quantifying the belt fit provided by belt-positioning boosters by measuring the belt location relative to the six- and ten-year-old Hybrid-III dummies. In another study, the...
Psychosocial and behavioral factors that predict impaired and other risky driving findings from a longitudinal study.
In 2005 in the U.S., there were 16,885 fatalities in alcohol-related traffic crashes, an estimated 39% of the total fatal crashes, and an additional 254,000 persons injured in alcohol-related crashes. Although alcohol-related crashes have decreased since 1982, they have leveled off in recent years...
Recent major improvements in road safety in the U.S changes in the frequency of crashes or the severity of the outcome of crashes?.
This study introduced a new methodology for evaluating the relative contributions of the changes in the frequency of crashes and the severity of the outcome of crashes to the recent large improvement in road safety in the U.S. The approach is based on a parallel examination of changes in variables...
Recent changes in the age composition of drivers in 15 countries
Objective: This study examined the recent changes in the percentage of persons with a driver's license in 15 countries as a function of age. Method: The countries included were Canada, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Japan, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Korea, Spain,...

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